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Knowledge Center

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Loci’s Knowledge Center is a community-driven help section that seeks to answer many questions around Loci, our products, and even the market. Questions and answers may be sourced from various channels such as Reddit or Telegram.

Learn How Loci Merges the Patent Process and Blockchain

LOCI

Questions surrounding everything to do with Loci and the company.

Loci is the future of innovation and intellectual property. Loci is a tech company founded with one goal in mind – to change the way the world invents and values ideas. Built upon Aristotelian theory that property may be private but should serve as a benefit to the common good, not just serve to benefit a privileged few, and the belief that we, as humans, think better together, Loci has set out to build a space for these theories to become practice and to put power back into the hands of inventors.

The first question any inventor asks is whether their invention has been invented before. Loci’s software, LOCIsearch, allows innovators to perform their own prior art patent searches to help determine whether their ideas are novel. With LOCIsearch, inventors can dig deeper and conduct more efficient compound searches easily. Once an inventor has determined that their idea is novel, if they inventor chooses, he or she can stake their innovation  to the Ethereum blockchain through LOCIsearch. Doing this allows the inventor to publicly disclose their idea and show global ownership through an immutable smart contract. At this point, an inventor can then begin the filing process for a patent (inventors will have 12 months under US rules) or instead decide to monetize their invention before going through the patent process. Alternatively, inventors can also choose to only post and abstract and only allow others to view their invention after entering into an NDA.

In this way, Loci reduces the barrier to entry for innovation and provides a marketplace for intellectual property that the world has never seen before. Loci and LOCIsearch is a place where people can invent, search, stake and ultimately sell their ideas.

Loci is not a patent filing company, though our system does facilitate the process by allowing inventors to export their searches directly to attorneys to serve as prior art. Loci also does not provide legal counsel regarding patent law to its LOCIsearch users. Users of our system are encouraged to seek legal counsel when making decisions on how to proceed with their inventions. Loci is also not an exchange nor is its cryptocurrency LOCIcoin (LOCI) a security. It is strictly a utility token for use in the LOCIsearch system. Loci is not necessarily a ‘crypto’ startup as our company and software were in the making long before its use of blockchain or a token came to be.

Loci publishes all of it’s updates across social media, through email campaigns, as well as our Telegram. If you’re looking for our social media accounts, they can also be found in this section.

We’ve also recently rolled out a new website with the addition of a Latest News section. You can read our latest blog entries, weekly updates, and more, right there on our homepage.

If it’s a support related question, reach out to us at support@loci.io. If you have a question that’s general, feel free to email us at info@loci.io.

We also always have the chat option available. Our team is generally available there to answer any and all questions. Telegram is a spot where our entire team is and you’re able to answer anything that might come up.

LOCIsearch

Our platform, LOCIsearch. Everything you’d need to know.

LOCIsearch exists primarily to be a do-it-yourself and more cost effective  alternative to a traditional patent search with a lawyer to help you better narrow your invention. Think of it like this…you are an expert inventor in your field, but your patent attorney is an expert in IP law. They have to work with you to understand your patent and that is hard. So, who better to effectively search for existing IP than you, the expert?

Secondly, it can act in tandem with the existing patent rules to allow others to discover your ideas before the patent is granted. This serves as a way an inventor can more quickly and easily monetize their IP before/during the patent process.

Resetting your LOCIsearch password is easy. Head over to LOCIsearch, click Login at the top, and then the link under the Sign In button that says “Reset Password.” Follow the steps and check your email for the reset link. If you continue to have problems, reach out to us at support@loci.io!

Documentation and video coming soon.

LOCIsearch has two different price points. For the free version, you’re able to quickly search through information and learn the power and use of the system. However, you’re unable to save data sets, stake claims, or view information newer than five years old. With the upgraded, $249.99/month or 100 LOCIcoin subscription, you’re able to view the latest information, visualize your results in new ways, start projects, and more. For more information and to see exactly what the upgraded version includes, head over to our LOCIsearch page.

We have access to patent data from 98 patent agencies around the world. Our first release of LOCIsearch included all of this, but it was VERY tough to weed through all of those patents to find your answers about if your idea is novel, so for the time being, we have restricted the data to US patents only. International expansion is on our roadmap and will be released shortly.

Most patents require a full prior art search before the patent application process can even begin. That means a comprehensive search of existing, patented technologies, which can cost upwards of $2,500 per search. An initial provisional patent application costs a fraction of the full patent, yet still ranges between $1,000 and $5,000 by the time it is drafted and submitted. The average nonprovisional utility patent application is even more expensive with costs running from $5,000 to $50,000. The majority of these fees are incurred during an IP attorney’s review of the documentation and claim writing, but that’s not all. Additional fees are incurred during patent prosecution over the course of three to five years, and a typical non-provisional application will incur a total cost of $10,000 to $30,000 with no guarantee of a patent. Inventions that are more technical and comprehensive in nature can easily cost hundreds of thousands of dollars.

Using LOCIsearch, you’re able to do all of this on your own or through your attorney, giving you a better idea of prior art for as many searches as you can during the term of your subscription. While LOCIsearch may not currently replace a full search, it can save you money and time in the patent process.

LOCIcoin

The utility token to rule them all, locicoin. how to use it and how to get it.

The price of LOCIsearch is $249.99/month. There are multiple use cases of LOCIcoin, such as staking claims and it’s use as a monetary medium on the LOCIsearch exchange. We can’t speculate on the price of LOCIcoin.

LOCIcoin is available on various exchanges such as KuCoin, IDEX, and EtherDelta.

Tokens paid to Loci for subscription or for blockchain posting will end up in the pool of tokens that we use for IP purchasing/exchanging.

The short answer: you’d purchase LOCIcoin off a secondary exchange. We are actively working to develop a system to allow users to buy a small about of LOCIcoin or its equivalent on our website using US dollars or other FIAT while maintaining our commitment to decentralization, our community, and open access. Check back soon. We want to make it as easy as possible for inventors to use LOCIcoin on our platform.

LOCIcoin is not an investment. LOCIcoin is a utility token that’s sole purpose is for utility on the LOCIsearch platform and within the Loci ecosystem.

Loci is a United States based company and marketing cryptocurrencies is illegal, further LOCIcoin is a utility, not a security. We focus on marketing Loci, LOCIsearch, and Loci’s ecosystem.

Unsold tokens will be locked up for a four year vesting period. 25% will become available every year for the purpose of supporting the growth of the Loci ecosystem.

Patent & Blockchain Process

How Loci fits into the mix.

We are working with attorneys directly through our affiliate program. In that, we are training them to use the product for their own searches and setting them up to interface with clients through a subdomain of LOCIsearch that is co-branded for them.

Sourced from Dan Emmons’ post on Medium.

Blockchain is a transformative technology that empowers individuals to trade information through peer-to-peer transactions and lower the use of intermediaries like large banks. Trust among peers is made possible through cryptography and a reliable network of computers that adhere to a set of well-defined rules, or protocol.

Blockchains store data in a structure that effectively timestamps the information through a digital verification process and changes to the data are stored in blocks, “chained” together by linking to the “hash” of the block before it, hence a “chain of blocks.” You can think of the hash as a “digital fingerprint” of the data. Even a tiny change has a large avalanche effect on the fingerprint, making it nearly impossible to fake a change, but very easy to identify if a bad actor is in the system.

Since copies of the data are stored in a public, open, borderless way, the network of computers verifying the data keep it secured, reliable, decentralized and censorship resistant, making it widely available to everyone. 

Not all blockchains are alike. There are a couple notable ones that are heavily used in practice: Bitcoin and Ethereum are the most well-known. The types of data that are stored on each blockchain represent different digital assets that are native to their chains. Smart contracts let us extend this further.

Loci utilizes Blockchain technology to store data representing a your invention to intellectual property (“IP”). We are currently relying on the Ethereum Blockchain because it allows us to store information, with the use of smart contracts. By disclosing an invention or astract on the Ethereum Blockchain through the LOCIsearch platform, a digital fingerprint of the description is stored, and becomes immutable timestamped proof of existence, stored instantly on computers around the world.

To have a decentralized and immutable blockchain, you need a token to incentivize computers to verify the data. Loci runs on the Ethereum blockchain. So that Loci’s fortunes would not be tried strictly to Ethereum, Loci created a utility token called LOCIcoin (also known as LOCI), which leverages the strength and power of the Ethereum network. LOCIcoin also helps inventors connect to our network regardless of their native federally-backed currently. LOCIcoin could play an integral part in the paradigm shift in how ideas are valued and exchanged. LOCIcoin will be used by inventors on LOCIsearch. LOCIsearch becomes the marketplace for the exchange of ideas between the inventors and companies or investors seeking to develop them — all transacted with LOCIcoin.

Loci is not the USPTO and is not affiliated with the USPTO. Loci uses its unique solutions to help inventors develop and monetize their patentable innovations.

A patent is a government-issued right that allows the patent holder to exclude others from using the patent. If the patent holder’s rights are violated, they can sue the infringer in civil courts. Some call this a government-granted monopoly to your innovation.

Governments grant patents in exchange for the inventor’s clear and detailed public disclosure of the invention. You therefore have to affirmatively apply for a patent and make a full public disclosure of your patent with the patent office to obtain a patent. Without a patent right granted from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”), you do not have the right to exclude others from using your invention.

  1. Something that is not new or useful.
    1. Useful (sometimes called the utility requirement) means that the patent must have some useful purpose. The bar for this is low.
    2. New, or novel, means certain public disclosures have not been made inventions prior to the filing date. Specifically, an invention is normally not patentable if any of the following happened prior to the inventor filing for a patent:
      1. the invention was publicly known or otherwise available to the public (either thought sale, public use or otherwise);
      2. the invention described in a printed publication anywhere in the world; or
      3. the invention was described in published patent application (in the US or PCT countries or issued patent anywhere in the world.

Please note that the above statements are generalizations, there are exceptions. There is, however, an exception for disclosures made by the inventor up to 12 months prior to filing of the patent application. See disclosure grace period.

Among other capabilities, LOCIsearch helps inventors determine if their invention is new or novel through our innovative search process. Loci’s search engine contains every patent filed and patent applications in the US and PCT. Our plan is to continue to increase our search capabilities, so keep checking back.

  1. “Laws of nature, physical phenomena, and abstract ideas” cannot be patented.
    1. You cannot patent laws of nature and products of nature. For example, a pharmaceutical company tried to patent a method using metabolism rates for a drug to modify the dosage of the drug. The Supreme Court found that unpatentable because the patent was seeking to monopolize a correlation that is a law of nature.
    2. Mathematical algorithms and mere ideas are also not patentable. You cannot for example, patent the concept of gravity. The Supreme Court struck down a patent that described hedging and another that described a computer-assisted settlement process on the grounds of abstract ideas.

The process to obtain a patent may be long and expensive. Filers need to consider both filing costs charged by the USPTO or PCT and patent attorney/agent fees. While filing fees are close to a thousand or low thousands (usually around $3,500 for PCT international filings), legal fees add up. Simple patents can cost $3,000-$10,000 in legal fees and complex and software related patents cost upwards of $15,000 in legal to obtain. It takes an average of 36 months to obtain a granted patent from the USPTO. Patent searches cost anywhere from $1,000 to $3,000. These costs do not take into account any communication with the patent office. http://www.ipwatchdog.com/2015/04/04/the-cost-of-obtaining-a-patent-in-the-us/id=56485/.   
 
At Loci, we have leveraged US disclosure laws on patents and are creating a marketplace where you may be able to monetize or fund your patentable invention prior to going through the costly patent process.   

While in itself it is not an issued patent and a provision patent application does not become a patent, it serves four important purposes:

  1. It locks in your priority date for your patent. The United States (along with the rest of the world) is a first-inventor-to-file patent system so a provisional patent saves your place in line for your patent. This is its most important use.
  2. You can lock in your priority date but keep working on your patent.
  3. It is less formal and cheaper to file than a patent. While your job is still to completely describe your invention, you do not need to list your claims or take an oath at the time of filing it. And it costs between $50-$200. Drawings are required if they are necessary to understand the invention (this translates to drawings are almost always required).
  4. You can start using the phrase “patent pending” when discussing or in labeling your invention.

To obtain actual patent rights, you need to follow a provisional patent with a full patent application within 12 months.

What are the downsides of filing a provisional patent application?

  1. If you miss the 12 month window to file an actual patent application, absent extraordinary circumstances, your patent rights are gone. 
  2. The description of your invention in a provisional patent must be as complete as a normal patent application. A poorly drafted provisional patent will not save your priority date and might even be used against you.

In short, a provisional patent should be written to fully disclose your invention in a way that a person of ordinary skill can understand it and make use of it. The parts of a provisional patent are:

  • Title
  • Abstract
  • Drawings
  • Background of the Invention
  • Summary of the Disclosure
  • Brief Description of the Drawings
  • Detailed Description of the Invention
  • Claims (not required but may be advisable)

You can find examples of provisional patents here. 

LOCIsearch is an innovative prior art search that allows inventors to perform prior art searches with results being displayed in a visual Venn diagram. Loci is constantly improving LOCIsearch and is using machine learning and contextual searching concepts to improve the accuracy and ease of use of prior arts searches. We will make announcements of future developments. Loci’s blockchain and marketplace, when fully developed, will allow users to keep track of and monetize their inventions. Users may be able to obtain proof of concept and investment before going through the patent process.

Putting ideas on the blockchain does NOT create a patent. That is very important; only the government can issue patents. What we are doing is putting proof of a disclosure on the blockchain. That disclosure event gives the idea creator a 12-month period where they are exclusively able to patent the idea. Our system is designed to work in tandem with the PTO processes.

Partially sourced from Dan Emmons’ post on Medium.

Cryptography is the art of writing in code or solving codes, which dates all the way back to BCE – think ancient Egyptians and hieroglyphics. The purpose of cryptography has always been to protect sensitive information and in the age of Internet, data, and network security, cryptography has taken on new meaning and more value than ever before. Currency refers to a form of money like coins or banknotes used among people to exchange goods or services for payment. The combination of these two words, cryptography + currency, represents the newest form of currency called cryptocurrency or a type of ‘digital asset.’ This currency is intangible, but exists and is protected through technology.

A cryptocurrency is a digital asset used as a medium of exchange that is transferred by signing transactions and validated by nodes on the blockchain through cryptography. There is a distinction between a native cryptocurrency and tokens. One acts as the foundation of the other.

For the Ethereum network, the native currency is called Ether. This cryptocurrency serves as a unit of account, and the mechanism for how miners are rewarded for doing the expensive work used to keep the network secure and reliable. Ether is sometimes referred to as ‘gas’ with respect to the transaction fee for changing the state of data on the Ethereum blockchain.

Ethereum supports the concept of smart contracts, which are small programs that exist on the blockchain. These contracts define the rules for how to change the state of data on a blockchain associated with accounts.

A very special form of contract that conforms to the ERC20 specification is widely known as a Token contract. This specification defines a set of standards so that wallets, exchanges and tools can be built on the blockchain to support a wide variety of tokens, without reinventing the wheel every time a new token is created. These Token contracts maintain a distributed ledger that is cryptographically secure and accessible all over the world through the public, open, global blockchain. The contract is the way token value is transferred between peers.

The U.S. Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) is the official governing body for all patent and trademark issuance in the United States. From the time of its inception in 1802 up until 2011, the system in the United States was known as a ‘first-to-invent’ system. This was advantageous in part because it rewarded the individual who actually invented the idea, as opposed to the person who may not have invented but was able to file a patent application first. However, the first-to-invent system was disadvantageous to the the process of innovation due to the incredible backlog of patents awaiting approval and costly and complex litigation known as interference proceedings in which inventors fought to demonstrate precedence and efforts to bring their inventions to complete patent applications or working prototypes.

Beginning in September 2011, the USPTO changed over to a system known as ‘first-inventor-to-file’ which changed the landscape significantly for innovators across the country. This new system was different in that it helped to align the US system to the systems used in the rest of the world and it changed the invention precedence standard with the intent of creating greater certainty regarding patent rights. Despite this recent change in filing system, the patent process through the USPTO still takes MANY years and costs THOUSANDS of dollars to complete. The process is inefficient and stifles progress and innovation.

Enter Loci.

We’ve put together a handy-dandy guide to help with just that!

There are three classes of patents:

  1. utility (defined as a process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter or improvements thereto), 
  2. design, and
  3. plant (a new variety of a plant that is created by humans (i.e., is not naturally occurring absent human intervention like insect resistant fruits)).   

This guide focuses on utility patents because they are the most common type of patents.

There are five requirements to patentability. To be patentable, the claimed inventions must meet each of the requirements below.

  1. The invention must be comprised of a patent-eligible subject matter.
    1. The definition of what can be patented is purposefully broad. Generally, any innovation that is the product of human inventiveness meets this definition. Laws of nature, physical phenomena, and abstract ideas (discussed more below) are not patentable. United States law states that any person who “invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof, may obtain a patent.” Almost any useful and novel innovation can fall under it—from an electric guitar or a special kind of screw to pharmaceuticals and medical devices to a manufacturing process, and even certain business methods.
    2. Examples of laws of nature, physical phenomena, and abstract ideas that are not patentable are:
      1. Laws of nature and products of nature are not patentable. For example, discovery of a new organism is not patentable. In a recent Supreme Court case, a pharmaceutical company tried to patent a method using metabolism rates for a drug to modify the dosage of the drug. The Supreme Court found that unpatentable because the patent was seeking to monopolize a correlation in metabolic rates that is a law of nature. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayo_Collaborative_Services_v._Prometheus_Laboratories,_Inc.
      2. Mathematical algorithms and mere ideas are also not patentable. For example, you cannot patent the concept of gravity. The Supreme Court struck down a patent that described hedging and another that described a computer assisted settlement process on the grounds of abstract ideas. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alice_Corp._v._CLS_Bank_International.
  2. The claimed invention must be useful.
    1. Useful (sometimes called the utility requirement) means that the patent must have some useful purpose and utility. It is generally easy to meet this requirement. The invention should be operational (I.e. work), not harmful to society, and have some non-trivial substantial use.
  3. The invention must be new or novel.
    1. The novelty requirement is there to ensure that you have invented something new. This is determined by making sure that certain public disclosures have not been made about the invention prior to the filing date. Specifically, an invention is normally not patentable if any of the following happened prior to the inventor filing for a patent:
      1. the invention was publicly known or otherwise available to the public (either through sale, public use or otherwise);
      2. the invention was described in a printed publication anywhere in the world; or
      3. the invention was described in a published patent application (in the US or Patent Cooperation Treaty (“PCT”) countries or issued patent anywhere in the world.
    2. There is, however, an important exception for inventor-derived disclosures made up to 12 months prior to filing of the patent application. See What is the 12-month grace period for patent disclosure?
    3. Loci utilizes the grace period exception as one of its methods to allow inventors to disclose prior to going through the expensive and time-consuming patenting process. There are pros and cons to this described below. See LOCIdisclosure.
    4. Among other capabilities, LOCIsearch helps inventors determine if their invention is new or novel through our innovative search process. Loci’s search engine contains (or will contain very shortly) every national and international issued patent and patent applications filed with the US and PCT. Our plan is to continue to increase our search capabilities.
  4. The invention must be nonobvious.
    1. This criteria is to prevent the patenting of trivial inventions. Even if your patent is new and useful, it must meet this requirement. The test is whether a person knowledgeable in the arts (or field) would think that your invention is already known if one were to combine several references. The test is supposed to be as of the time the invention is made. This is a fact-specific inquiry.
  5. The invention must be adequately described in the patent application.
    1. The description of the patent must be clear and accurate description on using and replicating the innovation and describe the best mode of making the invention.  Specifically, “the patent application must contain a written description of the invention, and of the manner and process of making and using it, in such full, clear and concise, and exact terms as to enable any person skilled in the art to which it pertains to make and use the same, and shall set forth the best mode contemplated by the inventor of carrying out the invention.”  

Breaking the above down, the disclosure requirement has four distinct elements:

  1. Enablement – The specifications provided by the inventor must be sufficient so that a person having ordinary skill in the arts to use the invention without undue experimentation.  
  2. Definiteness – The description must particularly point out and distinctly claim the subject matter.
  3. Written description – The inventions description must roughly commensurate with the scope of the claims.
  4. Best mode – Requirement that the inventor disclose the “best mode” of implementing the invention known to him or her.

Most patents are enforceable for 20 years from the date of filing, including utility patents.  Design patents are good for 14 or 15 years from the filing date.  There are other factors that go into this answer that are beyond the scope here, like if a provisional patent was filed. See What’s a provisional patent?

Under Section 35 U.S.C. §§ 102(a)(1) & (b) of the US Patent Laws, an inventor who publicly discloses his or her invention obtains certain statutory rights. What is a public disclosure? A disclosure means conveyance of enough information that a person having ordinary skill in the arts is able to replicate your invention. Less information than that is not a disclosure under US laws. A disclosure is generally not considered public if it is disclosed under a confidentiality agreement or not able to be found (i.e., a thesis that is not indexed and not otherwise publicly available). An inventor who makes a public disclosure obtains the following statutory rights:

  1. The public disclosure counts as prior art against other filers and prevents someone from filing a substantially identical patent application; 
  2. The public disclosure will not count as prior art against the inventor if the inventor files a patent application within a 12-month period before the effective filing date or priority date; and
  3. Overlapping subject matter disclosed by a third party within the same 12-month period is not prior art if the inventor had already publicly disclosed that subject matter.

It is important to note, however, that this grace period is 6 months in some countries and some countries only allow the disclosure period if the disclosure is in an officially recognized international exhibition. In some countries such a disclosure would prevent you from obtaining patent rights. The movement appears to be towards more countries adopting the 12-month grace period. We have compiled a country-by-country list of such laws. You can find it here. 

Loci utilizes the Ethereum blockchain. When fully implemented, these features will allow inventors to track and better value and monetize their inventions. While Loci’s marketplace and blockchain technology also work well with patented inventions, one of Loci’s advantages is that inventors can enter the marketplace even before spending thousands on patents.

We have put together options, as well as pros and cons in accordance with our understanding of applicable laws for inventors. However, we cannot warrant the accuracy or completeness of our list below. Inventors are encouraged to seek counsel. Posting on Loci’s blockchain cannot and does not substitute filings with patent offices.

  1. LOCIabstract – You post an abstract that you believe will not allow a person having ordinary skill in the arts (someone in the field) to replicate your invention and anybody who wishes to view it has to sign a confidentiality agreement (“NDA”). If done properly, this posting should not be considered a disclosure under US patent laws. See above about what is a public disclosure.
    1. Pros
      1. Under the laws of most nations, your patent rights internationally should generally be preserved.
      2. Your 12-month grace period is not triggered. You need a disclosure to start the 12-month period. Since there is no disclosure, the period is not triggered.
    2. Cons
      1. Since this is not considered a disclosure, the inventor does not get the statutory disclosure protections which would prevent someone else from filing a substantially identical patent. Additionally, the inventor’s invention will not count as prior art against other patents and prior art disclosures by others will count against the inventor until the inventor makes a public disclosure, files for a provisional patent or files for a patent.
      2. We are now a first-to-file (or disclose) country, so if someone else files for a patent, the inventor may lose his or her patent rights.
      3. You may inadvertently disclose too much and trigger the 12-month grace period. But if you do, you will receive protections listed under LOCIdisclose.
  2. LOCIdisclose – This allows you to post a publication or disclosure that you believe will allow a person having ordinary skill in the arts to replicate your invention. This posting will be considered a disclosure under US patent laws.
    1. Pros
      1. You will have statutory protection under patent law against people who file or disclose substantially identical patents or disclosures after your disclosure.
      2. Your disclosure will count as prior art against future filers and prevent people from claiming your specific invention.
      3. Third-party prior art filed after your disclosure date will not count as prior art for substantially identical matters.
      4. All of this will be done within the price of your Loci subscription.
    2. Cons
      1. Must file a patent within 12 months in the US (6 months in certain countries) to maintain patent rights. See list of countries that recognize disclosures.
      2. Some countries do not recognize prior disclosures and you may lose your ability to obtain a patent in some countries.
      3. You may inadvertently not disclose enough.
  3. Provisional Patent – Using Loci’s form, you can walk through the provisional patent application. Loci is working on matching its community with patent agents and patent lawyers to help with the filing process.
    1. Pros
      1. Preserve the priority date for a patent.
      2. Most other countries recognize provisional patents and their disclosure would not impact your ability to file a patent in such countries (but protections may be lost in a few countries).
    2. Cons
      1. Must file a patent within 12 months in the US to maintain patent rights.
      2. The description of your invention in a provisional patent must be as complete as a normal patent application.
  4. File a patent with the patent office.
    1. Pros
      1. Receive full protection.
    2. Cons
      1. Costs approximately $2,750 to over $15,000 to just file and takes considerable time to put together.
      2. Must also file in other countries to get international protections (administrative filing fee is $3,500 for PCT – currently 152 countries are members of PCT).
  • Summary page (contains the inventor’s name, patent numbers, filing dates, abstract, prior art references, drawings)
  • Drawings 
  • Background of the invention 
  • Brief summary of the invention 
  • Brief description of the drawings
  • Detailed description of the invention
  • Claims
    • The claims are the most important part of a patent. The claims must particularly point out and distinctly claim the subject matter of the invention.

Information that you do not publish on Loci’s blockchain are protected by an NDA between you and Loci.